Cpu cooling is the process of removing waste heat generated by a computer’s central processor unit (CPU). Computer components must be kept as cool as possible, because high temperatures damage semiconductors and reduce their speeds. In addition, the reliability of most electronic components decreases at a rate proportional to the square of their operating temperature.

A typical CPU cooler consists of a base, thermal paste, and a set of heat pipes that connect to the processor’s heat sink. The heat sink is usually a large metal piece with a series of ridges that provides a large surface area to disperse the heat from the CPU. The thermal paste fills the gap between the heat plate and the heat sink and conducts the excess heat from the CPU to the base of the CPU cooler. The heat pipes then draw the heated air away from the CPU, cooling it and blowing the cooled air out of the case to bring in new, cool air.

Computer enthusiasts frequently replace the stock CPU fan and heat sink with more efficient alternatives, especially if they engage in [[overclocking]], which is the process of increasing a CPU’s operating voltage or frequency above the manufacturer specifications. This increases performance but can also increase the amount of heat generated, which can require additional cooling beyond what is provided by a standard CPU cooler and fan.

Other techniques include liquid cooling, where a specialized reservoir of low-temperature liquid is used to remove heat from sensitive components. Another method is Peltier effect cooling, where a solid-state device converts heat to electricity using the thermocouple principle. Finally, some users employ advanced cooling methods such as phase change cooling and vapor chambers.

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